Paphiopedilum Taxonomy According to Dr. Guido Braem and Dr. Guy Chiron

Braem, G., Chiron, G. Paphiopedilum. Tropicalia: France 2003. Pp. 19-33.

(Type Species)
Section Subsection Complex Species var. / fma.
armeniacum fma. markii
delenatii fma. albidum
hangianum fma. album
malipoense fma. concolor
var. hiepii
var. jackii
micranthum fma. albo-flavum
bellatulum fma. album
concolor fma. album
godefroyae fma. leucochilum
niveum fma. album
Paphiopedilum charlesworthii fma. sandowiae
henryanum fma. christae
insigne insigne fma. sanderae
fma. sanderianum
barbigerum fma. aureum
helenae fma. aureum
villosum villosum fma. annamense
fma. aureum
Ceratopetalum fairrieanum fma. bohlmannianum
Stictopetalum hirsutissimum hirsutissimum
esquirolei fma. viride
var. chiwuanum
Thiopetalum druryi
spicerianum fma. immaculatum
Sigmatopetalum venustum fma. measuresianum
fma. pardinum
Spathopetalum Macronodium   sangii
hookerae hookerae
volonteanum fma. sandowii
Spathopetalum appletonianum fma. immaculatum
var. poyntzianum
var. hainanense
bullenianum var. celebesense
var. johorense
cerveranum fma. viride
Blepharopetalum mastersianum
violascens bouganvilleanum
Punctuatum tonsum tonsum fma. alboviride
Planipetalum purpuratum
wardii fma. alboviride
sukhakulii sukhakulii fma. aureum
Barbata Barbata argus
crossii var. sublaeve
var. potentianum
fma. viniferum
fma. viridiflorum
lawrenceanum lawrenceanum fma. hyeanum
fowliei fma. christianae
hennisianum fma. christiansenii
Loripetalum   dayanum
ciliolare ciliolare
superbiens var. curtisii
var. curtisii fma. sanderae
Chloroneura acmodontum
javanicum var. virens
fma. nymphenburgianum
urbanianum fma. alboviride
Polyantha   haynaldianum fma. album
lowii lowii fma. aureum
Mystropetalum parishii parishii
Mastigopetalum   elliottianum
kolopakingii fma. topperi
adductum adductum
philippinense philippinense
roebbelenii fma. alboflavum
praestans praestans
chamberlainianum chamberlainianum
primulinum fma. purpurascens
glaucophyllum glaucophyllum
moquetteanum fma. flavoviride

1"There is no doubt that these seven plants form a distinct and autonomous entity within the genus, and their combination into the subgenus Parvisepalum stands without question....It has even been suggested that the Parvisepalums are to be seen as a link between Cypripedium and Paphiopedilum."
2P. x ang-thong is a natural hybrid between P. godefroyae and P. niveum, indistinguishable from the artificial hybrid P. Greyi.
3P. wenshanense corresponds to P. Conco-bellatulum. "Answering a recent enquiry, a representative of the Royal Horticultural Society stated that P. wenshanense is to be applied to the F1 population (bellatulum x concolor) and that P. Conco-bellatulum is the correct designation for all other generations. In that sense P. wenshanense x P. wenshanense would yield P. Conco-bellatulum. This will cause more confusion. Besides, plants of P. Conco-bellatulum have been awarded as exceptionally good clones of P. concolor. The thus awarded hybrid will nearly certainly be used as a parent for hybridisation. This in turn means that the progeny will be misidentified, and of course the following generations of hybrids as well."
4"Subgenus Brachypetalum and subgenus Parvisepalum are considered to be primitive parts of the genus Paphiopedilum."
5"On the basis of a careful review of the original literature, we have chosen to retain P. chamberlainianum and are convinced that P. victoria-regina is to be regarded as a lost species, at least until more information becomes available."

Addendum by Dr. Guido Braem

Braem, G. New Paphiopedilums, A Critical Overview of the Last 10 years. Orchids 73 (4):280-289, Apr; 2004.

Valid Species Synonyms Details
P. cerveranum   Distinct species with several clones "known and in cultivation."
P. crossii P. callosum Proper name of P. callosum, having been sufficiently described as P. crossii in publications prior to that of P. callosum.
P. dixlerianum P. sukhakulii var. dixlerianum Differs by its "column structure and its overall phenotype."
P. gigantifolium   Closely related to P. supardii and P. rothschildianum, but has huge adult leaves and is, "unique in a number of floral characteristics, especially the curiously reflexed petals, the position of the dorsal sepal, and the morphology of the staminode and staminodal shield, as well as the white ovary, which it shares only with P. sanderianum."
P. helenae P. barbigerum var. helenae Differs from P. barbigerum, "by the subcircular form of the staminodal shield, the straight (not undulate) petals, its flower color and the much smaller plant size."
P. ooii   Large plant in Subgenus Polyantha having leaves up to 28" long and 2.75" wide and inflorescences up to 6.5 feet high.
P. tranlienianum P. caobangense Member of Section Paphiopedilum, may be a natural hybrid with P. hirsutissimum but probably not. Obviously related to the taxa in the P. insigne complex.
P. vietnamense P. hilmare, P. mirabile Member of Subgenus Parvisepalum, closely related to P. delenatii, although it differs in flower size and shape and leaf texture.
Species in Need of Further Discussion Probably Should be Called Details
P. anitum P. adductum var. anitum Larger plant and flower with distinctive color difference.
P. coccineum   Differs from P. barbigerum var. lockianum in regards to staminodal shield morphology. Genetic testing needed to confirm classification of plant.
P. platyphyllum P. stonei var. latifolium Classification of this taxon in doubt. Species in cultivation derived from P. stonei var. latifolium 'Ruth Kennedy', HCC/AOS and could very well be a hybrid with P. kolopakingii and/or P. supardii.
P. wenshanense   Natural hybrid between P. concolor and P. bellatulum. Causes considerable confusion because this is the name for the wild-collected plants as opposed to the artificially created hybrid of the same parentage, P. Conco-bellatulum.
P. viniferum P. crossii forma viniferum Does not warrant elevation to species level; best described as a dark-red color form of P. crossii.
Invalid Species Rightfully Called Details
P. aestivum P. purpuratum var. aestivum "Geographical variant" differentiated by, "'flowering time,' 'clear lateral veins on the upper side of leaves,' and 'horizontally spreading dorsal sepal' (meaning that the dorsal is bent forward over the pouch)."
P. brevilabium P. wardii A P. wardii with a commonly observed malformation in which the lateral sepals, "are not fused to a synsepal as is the rule in Paphiopedilum."
P. burmanicum   Differentiated from P. wardii "by a nontesselated upper leaf surface and a 'subovate' pouch'." Unconfirmed origin of plant description.
P. delicatum P. helenae forma delicatum A color variant of P. helenae, at most.
P. densissimum P. villosum forma densissimum Differs only in, "dense hairiness of the shaft of the inflorescence, the ovary and the outer surface of the sepals."
P. globulosum   Unverified plant; probably lacking the necessary characteristics to warrant differentiation from P. micranthum.
P. herrmannii   "New species belongs in section Paphiopedilum (single-flowered inflorescense, plain unmottled leaves) and, although the original authors place it next to P. henryanum, the affinity with P. insigne seems to be even more evident." Indicated that "P. hermannii has fairly recently developed as a natural hybrid."
P. intaniae   Probably a hybrid of P. philippinense and perhaps P. parishii or P. dianthum.
P. microchilum P. wardii Type specimen, "had all of the characteristics of P. wardii, but with a malformed pouch."
P. multifolium P. wardii "P. multifolium is fully identical with P. wardii and is to be regarded as a synonym thereof."
P. parnatanum   Undoubtedly an artificial hybrid, probably with P. sukhakulii as a parent.
P. puberulum P. cerveranum "The plant corresponds in all repects to P. cerveranum."
P. rhizomatosum   Plants of dubious origin whose only unique feature are said to be having rhizomatous habits, which are probably the result of cultural conditions.
P. sugiyamanum P. hennisianum Plants said to have been collected in Sabah on Borneo rather than P. hennisianum's habitat in the Philippines, but the description is based on questionable secondhand information.
P. vejvarutianum   See P. rhizomatosum.

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Last Updated: 11-30-06