Paphiopedilum Taxonomy According to Dr. Harold Koopowitz

Koopowitz, Harold. A Revised Checklist of the Genus Paphiopedilum. Orchid Digest. Special Reprint from Vol. 64(4): Oct., Nov., Dec., 2000, pp.155-77.

Valid Species Variant Synonyms Details
P. acmodontum      
P. adductum   P. elliotianum  
  var. anitum P. anitum Larger, darker flower.
P. appletonianum   P. bullenianum var. appletonianum, P. cerveranum, P. hainanense, P. wolterianum Group closely allied to P. bullenianum.
P. argus   P. sriwaniae  
P. armeniacum      
P. barbatum     Appears closely related to P. callosum and P. lawrenceanum, but all have different chromosome numbers.
P. barbigerum   P. insigne var. barbigerum Closely allied to P. insigne.
P. bellatulum      
P. braemii   P. tonsum var. braemii Closely related to P. tonsum.
P. bullenianum   P. amabilis, P. johorense, P. linii, P. tortipetalum Group may need to be included with P. appletonianum.
  var. celebesense P. ceramensis  
P. callosum     Has broad petals with ciliate warts primarily on the upper margin; down-swept petals separate P.callosum from P. barbatum and P. lawrenceanum.
  var. sublaeve P. birkii, P. sublaeve, P. thailandense Smaller form.
  var. potentianum   No warts; no hairs around the opening of the lip.
P. chaoi   P. henryanum var. christae, P. henryanum forma christae Member of the P. insigne alliance, may need to be attached to the P. henryanum concept.
P. ciliolare     Similar to P. superbiens, but petal, leaf and hybridization characteristics differ.
P. concolor      
P. dayanum   P. petrie In Section Barbata, but distinguished by smooth petals fringed with long cilia and without marginal or petal surface warts.
P. delenatii     Relatively homogenous, with slight variation in depth of color in the pouch.
P. dianthum   P. parishii var. dianthum Different from P. parishii in having erect inflorescence with fewer more widely spaced flowers, a glabrous ovary, differently shaped labellum, and a primarily white dorsal sepal.
P. druryi     Member of the P. insigne alliance.
P. emersonii   P. huonglanae Closely related to P. hangianum, has thick plain green leaves unlike other Subgenus Parvisepalum species.
P. exul     Perhaps a variant of P. insigne.
P. fairrieanum      
P. fowliei   P. hennisianum var. fowliei Recently considered to be a legitimate species in Section Barbata.
P. gigantifolium   P. ayubii Similar to P. supardii, but is a larger plant and flowers have white ovaries similar to those of P. sanderianum.
P. glaucophyllum      
P. godefroyae   P. ang-thong  
  var. leucochilum P. leucochilum Unspotted lips and fine reticulated blotches on the petals; different flowering season. May be a species in its own right.
P. gratrixianum   P. villosum var. gratrixianum  
P. hangianum     Recently discovered species within Subgenus Parvisepalum; resembles hybrid of emersonii x malipoense, but is distinct. Pale green flowers said to have a distinctive odor.
P. haynaldianum     Dorsal sepal carries large, irregular markings.
P. helenae     Related to P. barbigerum, but is distinct in that it has narrow linear petals without undulate edges that are held forwards at a 45 degree angle.
P. hennisianum     Member of Section Barbata; allied to P. lawrenceanum and P. fowliei.
P. henryanum   P. dollii Member of the P. insigne alliance distinguishable by its distinctive color pattern.
P. herrmannii     Status in question, may be a natural hybrid between P. henryanum and P. hirsutissimum, or perhaps P. helenae and P. hirsutissimum.
P. hirsutissimum     Member of Subgenus Paphiopedilum closely allied to P. tigrinum.
  var. esquirolei   Taller, less hairy flower stem; less hairy ovary.
P. hookerae      
  var. volonteanum   Smaller leaves with a purple tinge to their undersides and margins; different pattern of coloration of the petals; grows at higher altitudes.
P. insigne     Highly variable group.
P. intaniae     Striped dorsal sepal similar to P. philippinense, but has a scape and flower buds that are distinctly pilose.
P. jackii   P. malipoense var. jackii Distinct species in that it has a different shaped staminode with different markings; also has a different fragrance.
  var. hiepii P. hiepii, P. malipoense var. hiepii Status uncertain; probably synonymous with P. jackii.
P. javanicum   P. purparascens, P. virens Both synonyms have differences that are not significant enough to warrant being varieties.
P. kolopakingii   P. topperi Normal form has a yellow background, whereas P. topperi has a green background. Differences not significant enough to warrant varietal status.
P. lawrenceanum   P. barbatum subsp. lawrenceanum Closely related to P. callosum and P. barbatum, but has narrow, horizontally held petals with warts on both upper and lower margins; also has a rounded dorsal sepal.
P. liemianum   P. chamberlainianum var. liemianum Leaves have purple bands of spots on their undersides and hairy margins. Flowers tend to have a distinct white margin around the edge of the dorsal sepal.
P. lowii      
P. lynniae   P. lowii var. lynniae Closely related to and derived from P. lowii, but with smaller number of flowers per inflorescence and glabrous stipe and ovary; flowers with discrete basal speckling and spots on the dorsal sepal. Species based on single specimen in cultivation.
P. malipoense      
P. mastersianum      
  var. mohrianum P. mohrianum, P. xmohrianum Intermediate in form between P. mastersianum and P. bullenianum; possibly but unlikely a natural hybrid between P. bullenianum var. celebesense and P. javanicum, or perhaps between P. mastersianum and P. bullenianum.
P. micranthum     Member of Subgenus Parvisepalum in need of molecular analysis of type specimen.
P. moquettianum   P. glaucophyllum var. moquettianum Very large flowers with dorsal sepals having a clear yellow background with a fine speckling of brownish-purple.
P. niveum      
P. ooii     Tall multifloral; striped dorsal sepal; perhaps the lost species, P. glanduliferum?
P. papuanum   P. zieckianum Shows affinities to P. violascens and P. mastersianum.
P. parishii     Horizontally held inflorescences.
P. parnatanum   P. usitanum Newly described species resembling P. schoseri.
P. philippinense   P. cannartianum, P. laevigatum Highly variable in size, shape, and coloration of the flowers.
  var. roebelinii P. roebelinii Variety with long, twisted petals.
P. praestans   P. bodegomii, P. gardineri, P. striatum Large flowers with yellow background, twisted petals, and a relatively narrow and oblong yellow staminode surrounded on three sides with short red-brown bristles. Plants labelled P. gardineri and P. striatum are in dispute as to whether they are closer related to P. wilhelminae vs. P. praestans.
P. primulinum     Small form from Section Cochlopetalum; colored forms (forma purpurascens) do not merit varietal status.
P. purpuratum     Dwarf species.
P. randsii     Distinctive short petals with blunt tips held in an inverted U.
P. richardianum   P. lowii var. richardianum Would be a variant of P. lowii, except for erect inflorescences with smaller flowers, cream petal tips rather than pinkish-purple, violet picotee, and glabrous petals.
P. rothschildianum   P. elliotianum, P. nicholsianum ex  
P. sanderianum      
P. sangii      
P. schoseri   P. bacanum Identification of this species still very much in contention.
P. spicerianum      
P. stonei     P. stonei var. latifolium (particularly the cultivar 'Ruth Kennedy') mentioned often, but should probably be described as a separate species.
P. sukhakulii     Distinctive though variable species.
P. supardii   P. devogelii, P. 'victoria' Recently named, although long known species.
P. superbiens     Chromosome counts between P. superbiens (2n = 36) and P. curtsii (2n = 38) differ, but do not justify species separation.
  var. curtisii P. curtisii Shorter and more pendulous twisted petals with a dorsal sepal that is shorter and squatter.
P. tigrinum   P. markianum Some dispute over the name, but P. tigrinum is generally accepted.
P. tonsum     Several forms differentiated by the degree of red or purple pigmentation, also a green form.
P. tranlienianum     Member of the P. insigne alliance; appears to have affinities with P. spicerianum, but the two species have markedly different staminodes.
P. urbanianum      
P. venustum   P. pardinum Highly variable group that differ in the coloration and pattern of the leaves.
P. victoria-mariae     Largest plant and tallest inflorescenses among Section Cochlopetalum; flowers lack distinct and dark striping on the dorsal sepal.
P. victoria-reginae   P. chamberlanianum Lacks the distinctive red-spotting on the undersides of the leaves and the relatively wide, white picotee on the dorsal sepal of P. liemianum.
  var. kalinae P. kalinae Closely related to P. victoria-reginae; also with similarities to P. liemianum. Plants have compressed inflorescence of dark emerald-green buds with long dense hairs. Flowers have distinctively speckled urceolate pouches; deep chocolate brown blotches and streaks on the dorsal sepal; petals also bear dark markings.
P. vietnamense   P. hilmarii, P. mirabile Member of Subgenus Parvisepalum with large pink flowers and big, glossy tessellated leaves. Highly variable with regards to shape and depth of coloration.
P. villosum     Flower color quite variable, but form consistent.
  var. affine P. villosum var. annamense Deep purple basal blotch on a white dorsal sepal.
  var. boxallii P. boxallii Discrete spotting on a white-edged green dorsal sepal.
P. viniferum     Plant in cultivation as P. callosum 'JAC', but named as a separate species by Koopowitz because of "the shape of the petal tips and their distinctive pattern of small raised warts on the petal blades." (2n=38)
P. violascens     Petals tend to arch downwards and flowers tend to have small dorsal sepals.
  var. bougainvilleanum P. bougainvilleanum Paler in color with a different chromosome number (2n=40).
  var. saskianum P. bougainvilleanum var. saskianum Differs slightly from var. bougainvilleanum and may not warrant separate varietal status.
P. wardii      
P. wentworthianum   P. denisii Differs from P. papuanum in the speckling of its petals and probably should be a variety.
P. wilhelminiae   P. gardineri, P. praestans var. wilhelminiae Plants smaller than those of P. praestans and bear fewer flowers with a white background rather than yellow; richer brown striping and markings on the petals and sepals; staminode more squared with a heavier fringe of brown hairs and two small horns on the upper margin; wider spacing between florets on the inflorescence.
Invalid Species Variant Synonyms Details
P. bougainvilleanum     "Merely a very pale variety of P. violascens and should be reduced to a variety of that taxon, despite the fact that both types differ in chromosome number."
P. cerveranum   P. robinsonii Member of the P. appletonianum concept, only having a distinctly different staminode.
P. elliotianum     Usually taken as a synonym of P. rothschildianum.
P. glanduliferum     A "lost" species that may be a non-striped flower similar to P. praestans or perhaps the newly discovered species, P. ooii.
P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum   Small flower that should be reduced to a form of P. hirsutissimum.
P. niveum var. ang-thong   Should be referred to as P. godefroyae.
P. potentianum     Should be called a variety of P. callosum.
P. primulinum var. purpurascens   Colored form does not merit varietal status because selfings often produce albinistic forms, indicating they are not a distinct biological population.
P. robinsonii     See P. cerveranum.

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Page Created By: Stephen Manza
Last Updated: 11-29-05