Koopowitz, Harold. A Revised Checklist of the Genus Paphiopedilum. Orchid Digest. Special Reprint from Vol. 64(4): Oct., Nov., Dec., 2000, pp.155-77.
|Larger, darker flower.
|P. bullenianum var. appletonianum, P. cerveranum, P. hainanense, P. wolterianum
|Group closely allied to P. bullenianum.
|Appears closely related to P. callosum and P. lawrenceanum, but all have different chromosome numbers.
|P. insigne var. barbigerum
|Closely allied to P. insigne.
|P. tonsum var. braemii
|Closely related to P. tonsum.
|P. amabilis, P. johorense, P. linii, P. tortipetalum
|Group may need to be included with P. appletonianum.
|Has broad petals with ciliate warts primarily on the upper margin; down-swept petals separate P.callosum from P. barbatum and P. lawrenceanum.
|P. birkii, P. sublaeve, P. thailandense
|No warts; no hairs around the opening of the lip.
|P. henryanum var. christae, P. henryanum forma christae
|Member of the P. insigne alliance, may need to be attached to the P. henryanum concept.
|Similar to P. superbiens, but petal, leaf and hybridization characteristics differ.
|In Section Barbata, but distinguished by smooth petals fringed with long cilia and without marginal or petal surface warts.
|Relatively homogenous, with slight variation in depth of color in the pouch.
|P. parishii var. dianthum
|Different from P. parishii in having erect inflorescence with fewer more widely spaced flowers, a glabrous ovary, differently shaped labellum, and a primarily white dorsal sepal.
|Member of the P. insigne alliance.
|Closely related to P. hangianum, has thick plain green leaves unlike other Subgenus Parvisepalum species.
|Perhaps a variant of P. insigne.
|P. hennisianum var. fowliei
|Recently considered to be a legitimate species in Section Barbata.
|Similar to P. supardii, but is a larger plant and flowers have white ovaries similar to those of P. sanderianum.
|Unspotted lips and fine reticulated blotches on the petals; different flowering season. May be a species in its own right.
|P. villosum var. gratrixianum
|Recently discovered species within Subgenus Parvisepalum; resembles hybrid of emersonii x malipoense, but is distinct. Pale green flowers said to have a distinctive odor.
|Dorsal sepal carries large, irregular markings.
|Related to P. barbigerum, but is distinct in that it has narrow linear petals without undulate edges that are held forwards at a 45 degree angle.
|Member of Section Barbata; allied to P. lawrenceanum and P. fowliei.
|Member of the P. insigne alliance distinguishable by its distinctive color pattern.
|Status in question, may be a natural hybrid between P. henryanum and P. hirsutissimum, or perhaps P. helenae and P. hirsutissimum.
|Member of Subgenus Paphiopedilum closely allied to P. tigrinum.
|Taller, less hairy flower stem; less hairy ovary.
|Smaller leaves with a purple tinge to their undersides and margins; different pattern of coloration of the petals; grows at higher altitudes.
|Highly variable group.
|Striped dorsal sepal similar to P. philippinense, but has a scape and flower buds that are distinctly pilose.
|P. malipoense var. jackii
|Distinct species in that it has a different shaped staminode with different markings; also has a different fragrance.
|P. hiepii, P. malipoense var. hiepii
|Status uncertain; probably synonymous with P. jackii.
|P. purparascens, P. virens
|Both synonyms have differences that are not significant enough to warrant being varieties.
|Normal form has a yellow background, whereas P. topperi has a green background. Differences not significant enough to warrant varietal status.
|P. barbatum subsp. lawrenceanum
|Closely related to P. callosum and P. barbatum, but has narrow, horizontally held petals with warts on both upper and lower margins; also has a rounded dorsal sepal.
|P. chamberlainianum var. liemianum
|Leaves have purple bands of spots on their undersides and hairy margins. Flowers tend to have a distinct white margin around the edge of the dorsal sepal.
|P. lowii var. lynniae
|Closely related to and derived from P. lowii, but with smaller number of flowers per inflorescence and glabrous stipe and ovary; flowers with discrete basal speckling and spots on the dorsal sepal. Species based on single specimen in cultivation.
|P. mohrianum, P. xmohrianum
|Intermediate in form between P. mastersianum and P. bullenianum; possibly but unlikely a natural hybrid between P. bullenianum var. celebesense and P. javanicum, or perhaps between P. mastersianum and P. bullenianum.
|Member of Subgenus Parvisepalum in need of molecular analysis of type specimen.
|P. glaucophyllum var. moquettianum
|Very large flowers with dorsal sepals having a clear yellow background with a fine speckling of brownish-purple.
|Tall multifloral; striped dorsal sepal; perhaps the lost species, P. glanduliferum?
|Shows affinities to P. violascens and P. mastersianum.
|Horizontally held inflorescences.
|Newly described species resembling P. schoseri.
|P. cannartianum, P. laevigatum
|Highly variable in size, shape, and coloration of the flowers.
|Variety with long, twisted petals.
|P. bodegomii, P. gardineri, P. striatum
|Large flowers with yellow background, twisted petals, and a relatively narrow and oblong yellow staminode surrounded on three sides with short red-brown bristles. Plants labelled P. gardineri and P. striatum are in dispute as to whether they are closer related to P. wilhelminae vs. P. praestans.
|Small form from Section Cochlopetalum; colored forms (forma purpurascens) do not merit varietal status.
|Distinctive short petals with blunt tips held in an inverted U.
|P. lowii var. richardianum
|Would be a variant of P. lowii, except for erect inflorescences with smaller flowers, cream petal tips rather than pinkish-purple, violet picotee, and glabrous petals.
|P. elliotianum, P. nicholsianum ex
|Identification of this species still very much in contention.
|P. stonei var. latifolium (particularly the cultivar 'Ruth Kennedy') mentioned often, but should probably be described as a separate species.
|Distinctive though variable species.
|P. devogelii, P. 'victoria'
|Recently named, although long known species.
|Chromosome counts between P. superbiens (2n = 36) and P. curtsii (2n = 38) differ, but do not justify species separation.
|Shorter and more pendulous twisted petals with a dorsal sepal that is shorter and squatter.
|Some dispute over the name, but P. tigrinum is generally accepted.
|Several forms differentiated by the degree of red or purple pigmentation, also a green form.
|Member of the P. insigne alliance; appears to have affinities with P. spicerianum, but the two species have markedly different staminodes.
|Highly variable group that differ in the coloration and pattern of the leaves.
|Largest plant and tallest inflorescenses among Section Cochlopetalum; flowers lack distinct and dark striping on the dorsal sepal.
|Lacks the distinctive red-spotting on the undersides of the leaves and the relatively wide, white picotee on the dorsal sepal of P. liemianum.
|Closely related to P. victoria-reginae; also with similarities to P. liemianum. Plants have compressed inflorescence of dark emerald-green buds with long dense hairs. Flowers have distinctively speckled urceolate pouches; deep chocolate brown blotches and streaks on the dorsal sepal; petals also bear dark markings.
|P. hilmarii, P. mirabile
|Member of Subgenus Parvisepalum with large pink flowers and big, glossy tessellated leaves. Highly variable with regards to shape and depth of coloration.
|Flower color quite variable, but form consistent.
|P. villosum var. annamense
|Deep purple basal blotch on a white dorsal sepal.
|Discrete spotting on a white-edged green dorsal sepal.
|Plant in cultivation as P. callosum 'JAC', but named as a separate species by Koopowitz because of "the shape of the petal tips and their distinctive pattern of small raised warts on the petal blades." (2n=38)
|Petals tend to arch downwards and flowers tend to have small dorsal sepals.
|Paler in color with a different chromosome number (2n=40).
|P. bougainvilleanum var. saskianum
|Differs slightly from var. bougainvilleanum and may not warrant separate varietal status.
|Differs from P. papuanum in the speckling of its petals and probably should be a variety.
|P. gardineri, P. praestans var. wilhelminiae
|Plants smaller than those of P. praestans and bear fewer flowers with a white background rather than yellow; richer brown striping and markings on the petals and sepals; staminode more squared with a heavier fringe of brown hairs and two small horns on the upper margin; wider spacing between florets on the inflorescence.
|"Merely a very pale variety of P. violascens and should be reduced to a variety of that taxon, despite the fact that both types differ in chromosome number."
|Member of the P. appletonianum concept, only having a distinctly different staminode.
|Usually taken as a synonym of P. rothschildianum.
|A "lost" species that may be a non-striped flower similar to P. praestans or perhaps the newly discovered species, P. ooii.
|Small flower that should be reduced to a form of P. hirsutissimum.
|Should be referred to as P. godefroyae.
|Should be called a variety of P. callosum.
|Colored form does not merit varietal status because selfings often produce albinistic forms, indicating they are not a distinct biological population.
|See P. cerveranum.
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Last Updated: 11-29-05